"Januarie's Sin Against Nature: The Merchant's Tale and the Roman de la Rose, " Comparative Literature, 17 (1965), 251-57.

"The Character Genius in Alan de Lille, Jean de Meun, and John Gower," Chaucer Review, 4 (1970), 203-10. Reprinted in Gower's Confessio Amantis: A Critical Anthology, ed. Peter Nicholson (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1991), 109-116.

"Test of Translation: Guillem Comte de Peitau: Ab la dolchor de temps novel," Caterpillar, 10 (1970), 150-58. This essay has been reprinted in A Caterpillar Anthology, ed. Clayton Eshleman (Garden Ciity, New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1971), pp. 346-57.

"Some Notes Towards Finding a View of the New Oral Poetry," Boundary 2, Vol. 3 (1975), 653-63. Reprinted in Light Years, An Anthology on Sociocultural Happenings (Multimedia in the East Village, 1960-1966) ed. Carol Bergé (New York./Santa Fe: Spuyten Duyvil/ AWAREing Press, 2010), pp. 219-229.

"Chaucer's Use of the Boethian Bird in the Cage Image in the Canterbury Tales, "Philological Quarterly, 54 (1975), 679-84.

"The Pastoral Simile of Inferno XXIV and the Unquiet Heart of the Christian Pilgrim," Speculum, 51 (1976), 637-46.

"Eros, Memory, and Art" (review article on C.P. Cavafy: Collected Poems, trans. Edmund Keeley and Phillip Sherrard, ed. George Savidis (Princeton University Press, 1975, and Ritsos in Parentheses, trans. Edmund Keeley (Princeton University Press, 1979), The American Poetry Review, 10 (July/August, 1981), 30-34.

"The Vision's Aftermath in Piers Plowman: The Poetics of the Middle English Dream-Vision," Genre, 18 (1985), 313-321.

"On Translating Piers Plowman, C.4," Yearbook of Langland Studies, Vol. 3 (1989), 15-21.

"Inferno XXIV," Lectura Dantis, Special Issue: Lectura Dantis Virginiana, I , Dante's Inferno: Introductory Readings, No. 6: Supplement (Spring, 1990), 307-318.

"Marcabru, Love's Star Witness: For and Against," Tenso, 7 (1991), 23- 39.

"Saying Spirit in Terms of Matter: The Epic Embrace in Medieval Poetic Imagination,." Lectura Dantis, No. 11 (Fall 1992), 72-79.


"The Two Venuses and Courtly Love," In Pursuit of Perfection, Courtly Love in Medieval Literature, Joan M. Ferrante and George D. Economou, eds. (Port Washington, N. Y. and London: Kennikat Press , 1975, pp. 17-50.

"Self-Consciousness of Poetic Activity in Dante and Langland," Vernacular Poetics in the Middle Ages, ed. Lois Ebin, Studies in Medieval Culture, XVI (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1984), 177-198.

"Teaching Homer in Honors Composition," Approaches to Teaching Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, ed. Kostas Myrsiades (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1987), pp. 84-88.

"Hercules in the Mind: Mythographic Tradition and the References in Hamlet,"The Mythographic Art: Classical Fable and the Rise of the Vernacularin Early France and England, ed. Jane Chance (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1990), pp. 246-255.

"Chaucer," The Columbia History of British Poetry, ed. Carl Woodring and James Shapiro (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), pp. 55-80.

"Chaucer and Langland: A Fellowship of Makers," Reading Medieval Culture, Essays in Honor of Robert W. Hanning, Robert M. Stein and Sandra Pierson Prior, eds. (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005), pp. 290-301.


"Janus Witness: Testament of a Greek-American Poet," The Seventh Annual Kimon Friar Lecture in Neo-Hellenic Arts & Letters, ed. Matthew Jennett, The Attica Tradition Educational Foundation, Athens, 2000.


The Dante Encyclopedia, ed. Richard Lansing et al. (New York & London: Garland, 2000): "Belacqua," "Casella," "England," "Indolent."

Women in the Middle Ages, An Encylopedia, Katharina M. Wilson and Nadia Margolis, eds. (Westport, Connecticut & London: Greenwood Press, 2004): "Natura," pp. 713-721.


"Letter on the Beats," Wagner Literary Magazine, #2 (1960-61).

Unsigned review of Boris Pasternak, In the Interlude. Show Magazine, May 1962.

"Letter on Phi Upsilon Kappa," Kulchur, #10 (1963), 102-04.

Review of Armand Schwerner and Donald Kaplan, A Domesday Dictionary (Simon and Schuster, 1963), Kulchur, 13 (1964), 91-92.

Review of Louis Zukofsky, Found Objects (Blue Grass Books, 1964), Kulchur, #16 (1964) , 84-86.

"The Early Poetry of Rochelle Owens," Margins, #24-26 (1975), 79-81.

"A Note on Rereading Diane Wakoski," Margins, #28-30 (1976), 115.

Review of Edmund Keeley, Cavafy's Alexandria: Study of a Mvth in Progress (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976) and Robert Liddell, Cavafy A Biography (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), New York Times Book Review, October 24, 1976, pp. 6-7.

Review of Yannis Ritsos, The Fourth Dimension, Selected Poems, trans. Rae Dalven (Boston: David R. Godine, 1977), New York Times Book Review, July 10, 1977, pp. 14,37.

"This Do," Truck 20: Theodore Enslin (1978), 47-49.

"Odysseus Elytis," Confrontation, #20 (Spring/Summer 1980), 116-19.

Review of Stratis Haviaras, Crossing the River Twice, CSU Poetry Series III (Cleveland State University Poetry Center, 1976), Writers' Resources, No. 8 (1977), pp. 5-6.

"Oral Poets of the Air Waves," A Critical (Ninth) Assembling (Precisely: Six SevenEight Nine), ed. Richard Kostelanetz, New York, 1979. Alphabetical order.

Review of Odysseus Elytis, Maria Nephele, trans. Athan Anagnostopoulos (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981), Book World, The Washington Post, Sept. 6, 1981, pp. 8, 14.

Review of John P. McCall, Chaucer Among the Gods: The Poetics of Classical Myth (University Park/London: The Penn State University Press, 1979), Studies in the Age of Chaucer, 3 (1981), 152-56.

Review of The Music of the Troubadours, ed. Peter Whigham (SantaBarbara: Ross-Erikson, 1979), Credences: A Journal of Twentieth Century Poetry and Poetics, 1 (Fall/Winter 1981/82), 172-175.

Review of W.T.H. Jackson, ed., The Interpretation of Medieval Lyric Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980), Germanic Review, 57 (1982), 38-39.

Review of Phillip Rollinson, Classical Theories of Allegory and Christian Culture (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1981), Studies in the Age of Chaucer, 5 (1983), 197-200.

Comment on Bernard's F. Huppe's "Nature in Beowulf and The Song of Roland," in Approaches to Nature in the Middle Ages, Papers of the Tenth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies, ed. Lawrence D. Roberts, Medieval and Renaissance Texts & Studies, 16 (1982) , 42-46.

Review of A Basket of Chestnuts, From the "Miscellanea" of Venantius Fortunatus, trans. Geoffrey Cook (Silver Spring, Md.: Cherry Valley Editions, 1981), Speculum, 58 (1983), 561.

Review of Frances McNeely Leonard, Laughter in the Courts of Love (Norman: Pilgrim Books, 1981), Speculum, 58 (1983), 772-74.

"Pelagic Wanderings," on The Whale and Other Uncollected Translations by Richard Wilbur, The American Book Review, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Nov.-Dec., 1984), 20.

On Richard Howard's Lining Up, Charles Doria's The Game of Europe, and Charles Simic's Weather Forecast for Utopia and Vicinity, World Literature Today, Vol. 58, No. 4 (Autumn, 1984), 601, 608, 609-610.

Lee C. Ramsey, Chivalric Romances: Popular Literature in Medieval England, Manuscripta, Vol. 29, No. 1 (1985), 45-46.

On Denise Levertov's, Obligue Prayers and Peter Davison's Praying Wrong, in World Literature Today, Vol. 59, No. 3 (Summer, 1985), 430 and 435.

Review article of Nathaniel Tarn's At the Western Gates and The Desert Mothers, in Sulfur 14, Vol 5, No. 2 (1985), 167-173.

The Harvard Book of Contemporary American Poetry, Helen Vendler ed., World Literature Today, Vol. 60, No. 2 (Spring, 1986), 314.

On Paul Blackburn, The Collected Poems of Paul Blackburn, Edith Jarolim, ed. and Hayden Carruth, The Selected Poetry of Hayden Carruth, World Literature Today, Vol. 60, No. 4 (Autumn, 1986), 634, 638.

Carolynn Van Dyke, The Fiction of Truth: Structures of Meaning in Narrative and Dramatic Allegory (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985), Genre, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Summer, 1986).

Review of Alexandros Papadiamantis, Tales from a Greek Island, trans. Elizabeth Constantinides (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987), New York Times Book Review, August 30, 1987, p. 14.

On Charles Tomlinson, Collected Poems; William Carlos Williams, Collected Poems, 1: 1909-1939; and Gary Snyder, Left Out in the Rain: New Poems 1947-1985 in World Literature Today, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Autumn, 1987), 631, 636.

"In Memory of W.T.H. Jackson," Annals of Scholarship. Vol. 4, No. 3 (Spring, 1987), 7-9.

On Paul Eluard, Anthologrie des écrits sur l'art; Karl Shapiro, New & Selected Poems. 1940-1986; and Charles Wright, Zone Journals in World Literature Today, Vol. 62, No. 4 (Autumn, 1988), 629, 660-61.

Charles Tomlinson, The Return in World Literature Today, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Winter, 1989), 109.

Ronald Sukenick, Down and In: Life in the Underground (New York: Morrow,1987), Contact/Il, No. 53/54/55 (Summer/Fall 1989), pp. 36-37.

Eugene Vance, From Topic to Tale: Logic and Narrativity in the Middle Ages (Universityof Minnesota Press, 1987), Manuscripta. Vol. 32 (1988, 217-218.

Takis Papatsonis, Ursa Minor and Other Poems, Kimon Friar and Kostas Mysiades, trans., World Literature Today, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Winter, 1990), 172.

Richard Eberhart, Maine Poems, World Literature Today, Vol. 64, No. 2 (Spring,1990), 316.

Brian John, The World As Event: The Poetry of Charles Tomlinson, World Literature Today, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Winter, 1991), 123.

Robert Bly, American Poetry: Wildness and Domesticity in World Literature Today, Vol. 66, No. 1 (Winter 1992), 135-136.

"In a French Light," on Some Thing Black by Jacques Roubaud, trans. Rosmarie Waldrop, and on Invisible Ink by Asa Benveniste in Contact II, Vol. 11 (Spring 1993), 99-100.

Charles Tomlinson, The Door in the Wall in World Literature Today, Vol. 67, #4 (Autumn, 1993), 829-830.

Richard Neuse, Chaucer's Dante: Allegory and Epic Theater in The Canterbury Tales, in Lectura Dantis, #13 (Fall, 1993), 97-100.

Mary Catherine Davlin, A Game of Heuene: Word Play and the Meaning of Piers Plowman B, in Envoi, Vol. 3, #1 (Spring, 1991 [published in Fall, 1993]), 74-82.

James Schuyler, Collected Poems in World Literature Today, Vol. 68, # 2 (Spring, 1994), 374-75.

Kurt Schwitters, pppppp: Poems Performance Pieces Proses Plays Poetics. Rothenberg and Joris, World Literature Today, Vol.68, #4 (Autumn, 1994), 806.

On James Simpson, Piers Plowman: An Introduction to the B-Text and Piers Plowman, trans. A.V.C. Schmidt, in Studies in the Age of Chaucer, Vol.16 (1994), 266-271.

On David Ignatow, Against the Evidence: Selected Poems. 1934-94 in World Literature Today, Vol. 69, No. 1 (Winter, 1995), 147.

On N. S. Thompson, Chaucer, Boccaccio and the Debate of Love: A Comparative Study of the Decameron and The Canterbury Tales, in Studies in the Age of Chaucer, Vol. 20 (1998), 336-39.

On Thanassis Valtinos, Deep Blue Almost Black, trans. Jane Assimakopoulos and Stavros Deligiorgis, Harvard Review, No. 14 (Spring 1998), pp. 172-73.

Lawrence M. Clopper, "Songes of Rechelesness": Langland and the Franciscans (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1997), Envoi, Vol. 8 Number 1, Spring, 1999, 35-41.

On David Ignatow, Living Is What I Wanted: Last Poems in World Literature Today, Vol. 74, No. 2 (Spring, 2000), 371-72.

On the novel by Toby Olson, Write Letter to Billy in World Literature Today, Vol. 75, No. 2 (Spring, 2001), 333-34.

On The Beat Generation: Critical Essays, Kostas Myrsiades, ed., World Literature Today, Vol. 77, Nos. 3-4 (October-December, 2003), 100.

On Charles Bukowski, Sifting Through the Madness for the Word, the Line, the Way: New Poems, John Martin, ed., World Literature Today, Vol. 78, Nos. 3-4 (September-December, 2004), 97-98.

On Nikiforos Vrettakos, Thirty Years in the Rain: The Selected Poems of Nikiforos Vrettakos, Robert Zaller and Lili Bita, trans., World Literature Today (September-December, 2005), 108.

On Robert Zaller, Islands (poems), in World Literature Today (September-October, 2007) 76-77.

"Sappho, Reconstituted," review article of If Not, Winter: Fragments Of Sappho, Translated with an Introduction by Anne Carson, Knopf, 2002, American Book Review (July-August, 2003), pp. 25, 27.

"This Is Robert Creeley, a Tribute: Robert Creeley, 1926-2005, "American Book Review (May-June, 20050, p. 15.

Review Article of Miltos Sachtouris, Poems (1945-1971), translated from the Greek by Karen Emmerich, Archipelago, 2006, Calque, No. 2, (May-June, 2007), pp. 196-204.

Translation Cruxes II: "On Translating Cavafy's 'Come, O King of the Lacedaimonians,'" New Ohio Review, 14 (Fall, 2013), 169-75.

Newspaper article, "Why Has Cavafy's Poetry Attracted So Many Translators?" In Celebration of the 150th Year of C. P. Cavafy's Birth, The National Herald, December 14-20, 2013, page 4.

Review of Alberto Manguel, Curiosity, World Literature Today (January/February, 2016), 78-79.

Numerous poems, translations, and fiction published in little magazines and literary journals, including American Poetry Review, Another Chicago Magazine, Asymptote, Boundary 2, Broadway Boogie, Café Review, Charioteer, Chelsea, Confrontation, Correspondences, El Corno Emplumado, Exquisite Corpse, First Intensity, Golden Handcuffs Review, Grand Street, Harvard Advocate, Harvard Review, International Poetry Review, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Mandorla, The Nation, New Letters, The New Ohio Review, Niagra, Nimrod, Nomad, Pequod, Ploughshares, Poems from the Floating World, Poetry New York, some/ thing, Stations, Sun, Sulfur, Texture, Trobar, Yearbook of Langland Studies.

Selections of poems and translations in many anthologies, including A Big Jewish Book, America A Prophecy, Austerity Measures, Barbaric Vast & Wild, The East Side Scene, Inside Outer Space, The Jazz Anthology, Open Poetry, Poems from the Millennium (Vols. I, III, IV, V), Poetry in Public Places, Technicians of the Sacred, World Poetry.